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Sir William Crookes

  Sir William Crookes Proved Survival

  Miss Florence Cook's Mediumship


  The Last of Katie King

  The Researches of Sir William Crookes

Sir Oliver Lodge

  The Mode of Future Existence

  Psychic Science

Thomas Edison: The Philosophy of Paine

Michael Roll: Thomas Paine

Alfred Russel Wallace

Louis Essen

Albert Einstein

Michael Hanlon: B D Josephson

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Michael Scott (BSc), a graduate of Edinburgh University, is an astrophysicist and sub-atomic researcher.

The Researches of Sir William Crookes into Psychic Phenomena

by Michael Scott (July 1989)

In recent years, it has become fashionable for critics of Sir William Crookes to resort to a slur of his character. Not only are these accusations completely unfounded, they also conveniently ignore his other experiments which confirmed the reality of mediumship.

Crookes confessed that he began his investigations into psychical phenomena believing that the whole matter might prove to be a trick. His scientific colleagues held the same view and profound satisfaction was expressed because the subject was to be investigated by a man so thoroughly qualified.

His inquires can be traced back to July 1869 when he had sittings with the medium Mrs Marshall and then in December of the same year with another medium J.J. Morse. In July of that year, D.D. Home made contact with Crookes by means of a letter of introduction from Professor Butlerof. From Crookes' diary of his voyage to Spain in December of the following year (1870), it is clear that he had by that time reversed his opinion that psychical phenomena were "humbug" and had become convinced of the continued existence of human personality after death. All before he had anything to do with Florence Cook.

An interesting observation should here be made. Since the inception of Spiritualism at Hydesville in 1848 to the present day, critics have demanded proof of the existence of mediumship and survival. As a result, many scientists and lay researchers have provided a volume of evidence greater than that for almost any other natural phenomenon. In short, the challenge has been accepted and won.

The irony is that the critics themselves have resorted to the propagation of claims which are wholly unsupported by any evidence, e.g. that Crookes had an affair with Florence Cook. Let the critics' claims be measured by the same standards that they have laid down for those investigating the phenomena.

It should be clear to any rational inquirer that a personal slander of this great man with regard to a relationship with Florence Cook is the last resort of the critics, and does a better job than any supporter in confirming the authenticity of the investigations of Sir William Crookes.

Related material on other sites:

Tawdry New Efforts To Attack Sir William Crookes - Michael Roll's e-mail about Sir William Crookes (August 4, 2002) and the reply from Prof. Peter Wadhams (August 5, 2002) are also posted on the Jeff Rense site: