An Exact Classical Mechanics leads toward Quantum Gravitation - A foreword to show why this derivation was required (added September 9, 2005)
Some critical correspondence originating from a dialogue on the
"BBC Science and the Séance" message board has shown that an introduction to the theory called "Exact Classical Mechanics" (ECM) is required. What was omitted was the reason for the derivation of this theory. This reason is actually provided in the copy of "Consciousness as a Sub-Quantum Phenomenon" (CSQP) also available on the website of the Campaign for Philosophical Freedom. The brief summary I now provide ought to have been included in the introduction so that the rest makes sense.
Cosmologists are, to this day, still struggling, unsuccessfully, to solve the problem of the "cosmological constant" (CC) that arises from big bang theory as the prediction of a universe expanding at a rate 10^120 times greater than is possible. ECM theory was developed to provide a solution and does so very successfully. The logical basis can be summarised as follows:
The quantum level of reality is based on wave mechanics in which sub-atomic particles sometimes behave like little billiard balls bouncing off one another (particle nature) and sometimes act like waves spread over a large volume of space. This is known as "wave-particle duality". A so-called "quantum vacuum" exists as a seething mass of "virtual particles" - so-named because each keeps popping out of nothing to vanish again shortly afterwards. On this basis accurate predictions emerge for the nature of electrodynamics (QED) and nuclear phenomena QCD as explained very lucidly by the late Richard Feynman in his book QED. The quantum vacuum seems to have superseded the old "ether" as the ultimate background medium.
The solution for the CC demanded that neither of these are the ultimate levels of reality. Instead they are regarded as emergent from a deeper and ultimate level of reality that is truly real: the basis of all that exists. To prevent confusion with the old ether or aether, which had now to be considered emergent, this was called "i-ther". This was required to provide the organised waves needed at the quantum level: waves whose nature or source is not even considered in quantum theory. The i-ther could not be based on wave mechanics since then an even deeper level would then have been required to make its waves. An unsatisfactory infinite regression would be implied.
The most probable basis applicable was chosen as a slightly revised Newton's classical mechanics. This needed to obtain at both the i-ther and macroscopic levels with the quantum level sandwiched in between. Einstein's relativity theories could not be used since the observer was assumed as the "frame of reference" making it incompatible with both the existence of any background medium and the concept of kinetic energy. This is why ECM theory was required. If it could be shown to replicate the achievements of relativity theory at the macroscopic scale then strong justification for its validity at the level of i-ther could be claimed, especially if it also led to a solution no other theory could provide. The ECM theory achieves these aims.
It is encouraging that the Cambridge physicist, Professor Stephen Adler, has copied this lead in his book, "Quantum Theory as an Emergent Phenomenon" published in May 2004 by Cambridge University Press. The synopsis contains the phrase:
"quantum theory is not a complete final theory, but is in fact an emergent phenomenon arising from a deeper level of dynamics. The dynamics at this deeper level are taken to be an extension of classical dynamics...."
This must surely add considerably to the credibility of ECM and its application that had appeared by 1990 in my book (6) Intelligence Behind the Universe and its inclusion in Russian conference proceedings (9) of 1991.
ECM theory is used to provide a solution to the creation problem. To permit pure creation from the void of zero energy the i-ther had to exist as a mixture of real particles, to be called "primaries", some made of positive energy but with the remainder made of a negative kind, the latter defined by interchanging the forces of "action" and "reaction" in Newton's laws. Then the two forms could mutually annihilate to leave nothing. Pure creation could then be permitted as the converse case. Published in Russia in 1993 (Pearson 10)
Creation required both positive and negative primaries to be made of the arithmetic sum of two kinds of energy: rest energy and kinetic energy. As shown in CSQP, when pairs collide, as a result of the conservation of momentum (actually and more basically due to the force of action on one being equal and opposite that on the other) the kinetic energies of both increase in equal and opposite amounts so that the sum of the gains is zero, so complying with the law of conservation of energy. The result is a flaw-free theory for creation but gives an excessive creation rate. Fortunately as densities increase instability is predicted since the entire fluid so formed, can self organise into microscopic flow cells, of lower energy, in which primaries converge to a point or line at the centre of each cell. Here the conservation of momentum dictates annihilation instead of creation and this provides the solution for the CC problem.
The i-ther now appears as a tangle of solid-like filaments and blobs where annihilation proceeds. These have a fine mesh even compared with the size of sub-atomic particles, so that nothing except the fluid component of primaries could move. At first matter in motion seems disallowed and would be if sub-atomic particles were real little objects travelling along. However, the tangle of filaments and blobs can be arranged to look like neural networks similar to those of our brains and the theory shows the net would then be able to provide power in the form of organised waves.
Now chaos theory shows that if highly organised configurations are possible then, in the fullness of time and by the power of randomness, such configurations will arise. If these also have the power of replication then the whole flow field can self-organise.
Although a speculative feature of the theory, if accepted as possible, then the whole of quantum theory and the reason it has to work on wave mechanics now makes sense. This emergent level now appears to have been deliberately contrived to make it appear, at the next emergent macroscopic level, as if large objects can travel, even though nothing can actually move through the filamentous network. Sub-atomic particles have to be wave-generated spikes built as sequences joined end to end in time but not in position. Each new position has to be specified as probability functions so that each new position is most likely to be chosen proportional to the square of the amplitudes given by wave interference patterns. All the properties of each sub-atomic particle represented need to be carried in the memory banks of i-ther in a form similar to numbers. Many of these "particle properties" cannot be real. For example, electrons have an unimaginable double kind of spin and carry an anomalously high angular momentum that can only be represented by numbers.
This model provides a highly satisfactory interpretation for the enigma of wave-particle duality and fits very well into Richard Feynman's QED and QCD approaches (quantum electrodynamics and quantum chromodynamics the latter relating to the atomic nucleus). He shows for example that a photon moving from a source to a mirror jumps about at random though only as a potential of superpositions of all possible states and does not appear as a real particle until it hits the mirror. So an ephemeral and non-real quality is implied.
Also at the quantum level kinetic energies do not need to be considered real. Indeed, even the four forces of nature no longer appear real. They now appear as mathematically contrived because motion is produced like the successive illumination of the pixels on a TV screen: the pixels do not move at all.
The only inconsistency I found in Feynman's approach was his use of the "negative coupling" in theories explaining the mutual attraction between certain particles. Mediators are emitted from one particle to be absorbed by the other and forces arise due to momentum exchange. But this only explains repulsion. The negative coupling is a negative sign that reverses the direction of the forces. Clearly a gross violation of the law of conservation of momentum is implied.
However, this serves to augment the case for these forces being abstract since in this case the inconsistency is of no consequence. No real forces are needed if the particles are sequences governed by wave interference patterns.
Even the entire quantum vacuum will now be seen as a contrived phenomenon. It no longer appears as a seething mass of virtual particles. They are now better described as abstract ones: just numbers appearing and vanishing again to provide the effect we describe as the nuclear forces. The quantum vacuum can therefore flow like a fluid.
Such a basis permits several universes to coexist, interpenetrating yet not interfering with one another, but with all of them supported by a common i-theric reality. This can be effected by tuning each to a narrow band of matter waves of the quantum.
Survival Physics also appears from this model since it is clear that our minds can be considered as structures of the background medium. Then the entire spectrum of so-called "paranormal phenomena" can readily be found scientific explanation as real effects. For example, the i-theric mind can tune into one of these parallel universes at a time for a while and then switch to another. The need no longer exists for trying to find alternative explanations as delusion or fraud for psychic phenomena.
This explains why ECM theory needed to be developed. Since Chapter 4 shows it matches the achievements of Einstein's general relativity very well, provides a solution that solves the CC problem and correctly predicts that the expansion of the universe is in a state of acceleration, it is hoped that the reader will not try to discredit the approach on grounds that it has not arisen from any department of physics.
One critic suggested the theory could not explain non-locality: the phenomenon where two "entangled" particles arise together and move apart, still behaving as if coupled whatever the separating distance. ECM on its own is a classical theory and is unable to address quantum problems. However, the complete theory provides a mechanism in terms of the filaments. These have a mass density that is proportional to the sum of opposite energies that are in a state of mutual annihilation. Consequently their net density is zero or close to zero. Zero mass density is the condition for the propagation of waves at infinite speed. So the theory is not wanting in this respect: and no other mechanism has appeared from any other theory. Hence a very strong case can be proposed for the validity of Survival Physics of which ECM is an important feature.
A "quantum-wave theory of gravity" also appears from the complete solution that fits the experimental observations. It does not invoke "gravitons". This is the only place any excursion into quantum theory is made except for a re-interpretation of the vexed question of wave-particle duality. The mathematics of quantum theory is not changed in any way. That theory is regarded as fully proven and satisfactory except for gravity. Since there is no satisfactory theory of quantum gravity, as yet, this is of no consequence.
Please ignore the "rotating dumbbell" included in section 2 since this contains features needing modification. This was a speculative part open to critique and misrepresentation. It was an attempt to explain by ECM the lifetime increase of cosmic rays that special relativity predicts as a consequence of "time dilation". Since now the quantum and macroscopic levels appear as emergent and contrived it is quite reasonable to consider relativity theory valid at this level being organised by the i-theric mathematics as a slight modification of the ECM operating at the level of i-ther.