By Maverick -an honorary title bestowed by top cosmologists
April 1, 2003
An engineer has been able to solve a set of problems in physics. This was possible because the need to resolve a problem in the theory called the "big bang" required a revision of Newton's mechanics: the basis of every engineering discipline. The solution had first to provide an alternative to Einstein's theory of gravity called "general relativity", GR: a mechanics for large cosmic scales. An alternative was needed since GR is based on assumptions incompatible with quantum theory. The latter applies at minute atomic scales. This meant that a new mechanics for the large cosmic scale had to be derived as a prerequisite. This alternative was published in Russia in 1991 by Pearson(1). The revision satisfied all the experimental checks used to establish GR.
This solution demanded the existence of a real background medium: something totally incompatible with GR. Extension of the new alternative mechanics yielded an "Opposed Energy Dynamics" for application only at this most basic level of reality. The extension was needed for predicting the behaviour of the ultimate particles, the "primaries", some made of positive and the rest of negative energy. The extension showed primaries must be breeding from the void by collision. This effect was, however, almost cancelled by the formation of filaments of annihilation.
Now the problem called the "cosmological constant" confronting big bang theorists arose because the postulated initial explosive creation could not be switched off. The new approach provided a switch-off mechanism caused by formation of filaments. A solution for the cosmological constant had appeared and yielded the new prediction of a gentle ever-accelerating expansion of the universe.
The filaments naturally formed up into a sub-quantum structure, now called the "i-ther" (intelligent ether), like a fine-grained neural net. This seemed to have the potential to evolve into a huge invisible brain extending throughout the universe. It also provided a power-source only able to create waves but also with the capability of organising them. Matter could not appear until the i-ther had evolved intelligence!
Now quantum theorists are still troubled by the way minute objects behave also like waves. A paradox-free interpretation for this enigma, known as "wave-particle duality", had also appeared simultaneously from the mathematical logic! Matter now appeared as a deliberate creation brought about by organised wave-action. This solution was published in Russia(2) in 1993 and a revised version published in the scientific journal "Frontier Perspectives"(3) in 1997. This solution showed waves from the i-ther level of reality could be focused to produce what appear to us as sub-atomic particles together with the four forces of nature. The combined waves from concentrations of matter also produced the long range density variations of the i-ther needed to produce the same mathematical effects as the "curved-spacetime" invented by Einstein and required by his GR.
In this way quantum theory can now be explained in terms of common sense. It is able to explain the existence of matter by a simple paradox-free logic.
Mind no longer appears as mere brain function. Mind is of the i-ther and has the potential of being immortal. Contrary to the paradigms of established physics, the soul really does exist! To arrive at this conclusion as spin-off from a successful attempt to solve other problems (which are still bedevilling physicists and cosmologists) seems to add more credibility than direct attempts to prove survival.
An Outstanding Problem in Quantum Physics
Quantum theory is the study of mechanics on small atomic scales where everyday common sense logic seems totally inapplicable. One difficulty is known as "wave-particle duality". Some kind of unknown wave system seems to control the places where minute objects are to be found at any instant. They behave as if they occupy a large number of places simultaneously in a ghost-like unresolved wave-state of limbo until the instant at which an observer looks at them. Then the waves collapse into the reality of particles. This is known as the "Copenhagen Interpretation of wave-particle duality".
Any object consists of countless billions of such particles. Consequently no object can be considered to truly exist until the instant it is perceived! The extraordinary situation, which has prevailed for nearly a century is that, despite the clear acceptance of the role of consciousness in creating reality, all mainstream scientists still insist that consciousness is nothing more than brain function. And brains are made out of matter. The obvious paradox, which is still puzzling theorists, is that matter could not really exist prior to any brain!
Has quantum theory, therefore, already demonstrated that some form of consciousness had to pre-exist the creation of matter? I will show that, following this lead, an escape route can be provided for the clerics so that they can throw out offending texts, those encouraging violence against unbelievers, without the risk of diminishing their faiths. For those with no faith the conclusions to be drawn can be regarded as a challenging conundrum.
Outstanding Problems in Cosmology Physics
Cosmology physics accepts that the universe began as a gigantic explosion called the "big bang" in which all the energy and matter, as well as space-time itself, appeared from nothing in a split second. A ball of hot gas had suddenly appeared in a creative process during a period known as "inflation". Then the creative effect had somehow to suddenly shut off to leave a rapidly expanding cloud in which no further creation occurred. A mutually attractive gravitational force was also postulated to arise at the instant of creation and then acted on every particle of the gas cloud. This force tried to pull back each particle of gas toward the origin position. Consequently the expansion was thought to be continually slowing down.
Unfortunately no way could be found to shut off the initial creative explosion so that the theory did not predict the desired scenario at all. Instead the mathematics showed a violent explosive creation to continue; giving a rate of expansion many billions of times greater than astronomical observations could possibly allow! It is known as the problem of the "cosmological constant" (nothing to do with one Einstein introduced). This has been troubling theorists ever since the big bang theory was formulated in 1980 and is still not resolved. This problem was admitted and explained in more detail by Guth and Steinhardt(4) in 1989.
Another major difficulty is finding a theory of gravity compatible with quantum theory. Einsteinís approach called "general relativity" is a very accurate mathematical description of the way matter behaves on the large cosmic scale. It is still accepted to be the best in existence. Unfortunately, as all physicists freely admit, it just does not match in with quantum theory. Mathematicians have been trying for nearly 80 years to match these two so-called "pillars of twentieth century achievement" and success still evades them.
The latest attempts to resolve all these difficulties are embodied in what is known as "Superstring theory". Sub-atomic particles are represented by loops of "string" travelling along and vibrating as they go. The vibrations have different harmonics to represent different particles. Extra dimensions had to be accepted. These were so highly curved that they formed minute balls too small to be seen. They supplemented the three dimensions plus time of common experience. The idea of higher dimensions followed the lead of Einstein whose theory of general relativity was based on curved geometries. Objects moved in straight lines but in curved space-time so that they appeared to be deflected by a gravitational force. The idea was to try and explain all forces of nature by an extension of this concept. Despite such sophistication, however, Greene(5), an enthusiastic superstring theorist, admits on page 211 of his book that the theory is unable to make predictions matching any experimental checks and on page 225 admits it cannot offer any hope of solving the problem of the cosmological constant.
The reader is requested to compare this complexity with the solution to be presented. The following summarises an approach needing only three spatial dimensions plus time, the latter going at the same rate everywhere. This is the simple basis of Survival Physics that returns to the logic of common sense.
A Holistic Solution
In 1984 Pearson became aware that something was wrong with the logic associated with the "big bang" theory so that a new approach was required. This meant developing an extension and revision of existing mechanics so that a quantum-compatible theory of gravity could also simultaneously emerge. His final solution will be summarised, from the published literature (1 to 3). He shows how it gives mostly the same end equations as general relativity and simultaneously eliminates the difficulty of the cosmological constant. A new interpretation for wave-particle duality emerges naturally from the mathematical logic and then shows how consciousness could exist prior to the creation of matter and therefore before the existence of any brain.
A Solution to the Gravity Problem
It seemed to him that the trouble with Einstein's theory was that the assumptions on which it was based made it incompatible with the existence of any background medium, such as the old aether, an invisible substance considered to permeate the entire universe. This is because the observer is made the "frame of reference" and so can be regarded as standing still. No two observers moving with respect to one another can both be standing still relative to the aether or any other background. The aether was discredited about 1900 and is still regarded as non-physical, yet something like it is needed if quantum theory is to make sense. Therefore the assumptions of relativity needed modification. This is something theorists still will not accept since, in effect, this means the abandonment of relativity theory.
Newton's mechanics seemed the only alternative, but is restricted to low speeds. Revision therefore seemed necessary to make it exact. It was found that the mass of an object needed to be regarded as variable instead of remaining constant as Newton had assumed. To accelerate an object an energy input is required. For an object free to move and starting from rest this energy input will become kinetic energy: the energy of motion. A corresponding increase of mass is involved. A background medium had to exist and had to be more compressed the closer the approach to a massive object in order to satisfy a constraint of quantum theory: so the density of the aether had also to be variable. This variable density, coupled with the variable mass, gave the same predictions as general relativity but offered the huge advantage of being fully quantum compatible.
Although mostly the same end equations appeared, they had a different meaning and interpretation. For example, as most people know, a clock situated at a low level in a gravitational field runs slow according to Einstein's concept of "gravitational time dilation": time itself is said to run slower at a lower level. For the revised Newtonian, time runs at the same rate everywhere. However, Einstein's famous equation E = mc2 appears more directly from a revision of Newtonian mechanics than from relativity, but now c, the speed of light, reduces at lower levels instead of being the universal constant Einstein postulated. Any object, including a clock, when lowered say, on a cable, will have E, the energy from which it is made, remaining constant. Hence m, the mass of the clock, needs to increase to compensate for the reduction in c. This "gravitational mass increase" reduces the frequency of vibration of the clock mechanism. Exactly the same equation appears as given by general relativity but describes something totally different.
Since western journals refuse to publish any critiques or alternatives to relativity, this new solution was first presented at a scientific conference in Russia in 1991 and was selected to appear in their proceedings(1).
The same revised Newtonian then needed to be applied to study the background medium, assumed to operate on similar mechanics but in such a manner as to explain the peculiarities of quantum theory. In effect this mechanics was being assumed to apply both on large cosmological scales and at a sub-quantum level of reality. The hope was that the peculiarities at the quantum level would emerge as a natural consequence.
A Solution for the Cosmological Constant Appears
The problem of the cosmological constant then needed to be addressed. The only way the revised mechanics could provide a solution was by making a further revision. A mirror mechanics had to be added having all masses and energy values considered negative. Then the background medium, which Pearson now calls the "i-ther", had to consist of a mixture of particles, some made of positive energy and with the remainder of a negative kind (nothing to do with electric charge, which cannot exist at the level of i-ther). Then both kinds could be created or destroyed in balance because the changes would cancel out. To understand what this entails it is easiest to think of the energy form known as mechanical work. An object is pushed a given distance and the work done is obtained by multiplying the pushing force by the distance it moves. If the object is totally free to move it will accelerate, so absorbing the work done and turning it all into energy of motion: kinetic energy. (This also adds a "kinetic mass" causing a mass increase according to the revised Newtonian.)
If now the energy from which the object is made is considered negative then a backward facing force will cause it to accelerate. So negative mechanical work is converted to negative kinetic energy and there will be an associated increase of negative mass. There is nothing peculiar about such negative mass and energy. We could do all our mechanics on these assumptions and get all the same responses because the negative effects always come in pairs and cancel out. For example, one object pushes with a "force of action" against another. The latter pushes back with a "force of reaction". If the directions of all these forces are reversed for both objects then they will be predicted to bounce away from each other just as they did with the forces acting in the directions normally assumed.
The really new feature, however, is that now both kinds of energy, considered complementary to one another like the Yin and Yang of Eastern philosophies, are considered to co-exist. They have to form a mixture of fast moving "primaries" in constant collision with one another like the molecules of a gas. Primaries, as will be shown later, turn out to be the only particles that really do exist and provide the ultimate elements from which everything else derives.
Collisions of primaries of like energies, positive against positive or negative against negative, were just like those of billiard balls. For evaluating responses of unlike kinds, however, it was necessary to extend the mechanics by introducing what Pearson calls, "Opposed Energy Dynamics". This extension to mechanics was first presented in Russia in 1993 and appeared in the proceedings(2). A further publication by Pearson(3) in 1997 received high commendation from Temple University, Philadelphia USA.
Just as in ordinary mechanics, it is necessary to consider two conservation laws together: those of energy and momentum. Applied to opposite energies in collision, however, responses turned out to be very different from those between like kinds.
An astonishing mathematical discovery emerged. At each collision of opposites, the need to conserve momentum forced each primary to gain energy. They were breeding like opposite sexes! Each of the collision partners gained energy of its own kind in balanced amounts. It meant that pure creation could spontaneously arise from a void of nothingness! This meant the i-ther could spontaneously appear from nothing and grow at an ever accelerating and extremely rapid rate, both in volume and density. Fortunately, at a critical density, instability would arise allowing flow patterns on a minute scale to appear. Primaries would be pushed by the pure creation going on behind them so that they flowed in large numbers to common centres from all directions. The net momentum obtained by adding up that of each primary totalled to zero so producing the conditions favouring mutual annihilation. This cancelled nearly all the creation going on so that only a minute net creation could remain. A solution to the cosmological constant had appeared naturally! The i-ther would be committed to a modest ever-accelerating growth and, after matter had appeared, the universe of matter would be carried along so that it too would expand in a similar way. Pearson announced this prediction at the Mensa conference at Malvern in 1997. Then in 1998 astronomical observations of very distant supernovae, published by Schwartzchild(6), confirmed that indeed the universe was expanding at an accelerating rate: so lending fortuitous support to the theory. A detailed study showed that the rate of expansion could not be greater than a fifth of that observed. Observation is based on the so-called "red-shift" of light from distant galaxies. However, according to Anastasovski(7), most of the red shift is due to energy lost by light during its travel over huge distances.
Cosmologists on the other hand were taken by surprise since they had assumed the expansion to be always slowing. To explain the effect they have invented the idea of dark energy with strange repulsive powers. However, the problem of the cosmological constant is left unresolved, being treated as a separate issue.
Resolving the issue of Wave-Particle Duality
The centres of annihilation are most stable as filaments, the latter composed of primaries in the act of mutual annihilation. Such filaments tend to exist in bundles, but on larger scales these bundles have random orientation. Switch-like Tee-junctions appear as filaments trying to cross each other. Also the cell-like structures of breeding cylinders, with filaments of annihilation at their centres, act like tiny engines producing power. This power can only be expressed in the form of waves of switching action as one switch, in changing state, triggers the next. A fluid component of breeding primaries bathes the filaments and so forms an additional medium for wave propagation. A source for quantum waves seems to have appeared! In addition the filaments seem to have the potential for evolving a brain-like structure. This appears as a background neural net of minute grain size, even as compared to atoms, yet filling the entirety of all space. Hence it was speculated that consciousness evolved at the level of i-ther long before matter appeared.
At some point this consciousness developed a creative urge and built an interpenetrating system of universes of matter as a means of providing meaningful habitats for minds. Each mind would be a fragment of the i-theric consciousness, separated from the rest by information filter-barriers, programmed into the i-ther, so that each could only obtain information via sense organs built of matter. By such means each mind would be able to compete and cooperate with other minds in meaningful ways and matter would appear to be the totality of existence.
The only tools available for building such matter-systems were the quantum waves. Hence a perfect reason for the strange wave-particle nature of matter seemed to have appeared. To make what we infer to be a sub-atomic particle, waves had to be focused: to implode at a selected point. At any focal point a transient spike of density in the i-ther would be generated to represent that particle and it would behave as such in collision with others built the same way. Then to make say, an electron, such focusing would need to be repeated very rapidly with places chosen by the i-ther using its own kind of computational mathematics: using wave interference patterns as numbers. Any "particle", at the next level of reality, the quantum level, would really be a train of repeated creations joined end to end in time but not in position. The train of positions would be so chosen as to make it appear as if controlled by an electromagnetic force. Similar positioning would make the nuclei of atoms seem controlled by a strong nuclear force. Hence the forces of nature, seeming so real to us, now appear as abstract mathematical constructs. Matter cannot be as real as it appears: true reality lies in the invisible, in the real energies at the level of i-ther.
This model, worked out in detail, provided a new and paradox free interpretation for both wave-particle duality and non-locality. The latter depended on the hyper-fast propagation of information along the filaments.
Quantum Waves influence Gravity
As each quantum wave passed the focal point, to make a sub-atomic particle, it then started to spread out again travelling ultimately to infinite distance. As it went it caused increase in the collision of primaries and so stimulated excess creation. This mechanism was studied in detail and found to provide a satisfactory explanation for the variable density needed to create a satisfactory theory of gravity. The "quantum-wave theory of gravity" had appeared and seems every bit as good in predictive power as general relativity.
This Extended Theory of Everything could Defuse Fundamentalism
The picture that has emerged shows not only that the universe is most likely to be a deliberate creation of the mind: it also gives some detail of the way that creation is likely to have been achieved. It also follows that the mind, or consciousness, is likely to be part of the structure of the i-ther, having the potential to be immortal, and not mere mortal brain function. In this way the new theory supports the main tenets of all religious faiths: that the universe was a deliberate creation and that an immortal soul could exist. There is no threat to physics. Indeed it now seems likely that its problems can only be resolved when these tenets are incorporated.
Experimental evidence for the survival of consciousness following bodily death has been accumulating for over a century, but has been consistently discredited by physicists. However, even the Society for Psychical Research, dominated by sceptics who aim to have it all explained away as fraud or delusion, have published confirmatory evidence. Their Scole Report, published in 1999, gives details of phenomena inexplicable by any other hypothesis than the survival of consciousness.
Furthermore the new approach presents no threat to biology or to Darwin's theory of evolution. It is likely that the first cells and their DNA were deliberately designed and created, but from then on natural selection could have been relied upon to produce the diversity of biological life we see today. Indeed some difficulties, such as missing links between species, can be provided with a plausible explanation. Each could have been a new design built upon older experience: just as our cars evolved from horseless carriages.
The elements of a more comprehensive theory of everything are provided than is being considered by established theoreticians. It has the advantage of providing the much needed escape route for theologians wanting to find a way of jettisoning harmful ancient texts without undermining the desirable features of their faiths. It is these harmful texts, inserted for political reasons, on which fundamentalists rely to justify their violence against infidels.
From a start made to solve a difficulty in the big bang theory, consciousness has been shown to have the potential of being immortal. If the brain is conscious as well, it cannot be the primary consciousness. The latter must still remain after the brain has died.
Since survival can be shown to be an essential and integral part of physics, the hope must be that the efforts still being made to discredit all evidence of survival will soon come to an end. This theory has achieved publication in Russian conference proceedings(1 & 2) of 1991 and 1993 respectively, and in the peer-reviewed scientific journal "Frontier Perspectives"(3) in 1997. Furthermore Dr Peter Wadhams, Professor of Ocean Physics at Cambridge University, supported the theory. His broadcast on the Jeff Rense Radio Program in 2001 can be heard on the Jeff Rense website(9). Pearsonís first book(10) on the subject contains certain features which were later superseded so that the supplement(11) needs also to be consulted. These are available from the website of The Campaign for Philosophical Freedom(12) and Ref.3 can be seen on the website of The International Survivalist Society(13)
Appendix: Wave-Particle Duality in More Detail
Quantum theory is the study of mechanics on small atomic scales where particles also act like waves. The emergence of "wave-particle duality" caused physicists like Wolfgang Pauli to make such statements as, "This is more like Eastern mysticism than Western science". Some kind of unknown wave system seems to control the places where minute objects are to be found at any instant. For example, electrons are sub-atomic particles that seem to orbit nuclei to form the atoms of matter. Experiments have been made using electrons stripped from their parent atoms. These electrons have then been projected, one at a time, towards two very small closely spaced holes in a screen. Those which pass through the holes have then been collected, over a long period, to produce a pattern on a screen placed some distance behind the two holes. The pattern produced is always found to be identical with that produced by interfering waves. Dropping two pebbles into a pond together can for example, easily produce such a pattern. The ripples spread out in rings from each point of impact and eventually crossover one another. This crossover region is an interference pattern.
The puzzle was that each electron, going one at a time, could only pass through one hole and yet the pattern required at least the governing waves to pass through both simultaneously. Early on, de Broglie suggested that some kind of pilot wave must be organising the motion but this idea did not fit all the data and was abandoned. This idea was superseded by the "Copenhagen interpretation" due mostly to Bohr. This said that no particles really existed until the instant they were observed. Until then they were represented by complex "wave functions" encoding all possible positions. This interpretation meant that the consciousness of the individual formed a critical part of what we experience as reality.
Now across all scientific disciplines an established postulate is that mind and consciousness exist purely and only as brain function: the interaction of its neurons. An obvious paradox then arises: matter could not really exist prior to evolution of the brain!
Some theorists have looked into the idea of time reversal as a solution. The consciousness of the evolved brain causes matter to exist in the past, so finely organised as to permit the brain to appear in the future! Others followed an idea proposed by Everett in 1957. He suggested that electrons carried their wave functions along with them so that, to explain the two-hole experiment, a ghost electron needed to pass simultaneously through the unused hole. It meant a new universe had to be created every time an electron had a choice of two paths. This idea is said to be gaining ground by the Oxford physicist, Deutsch(14), who says on page 51 of his book that it is the only possible explanation. Elsewhere he says that at least a million-million parallel universes needs to exist just to explain wave-particle duality.
One explanation that seems more logical than all these was introduced in 1980 by Bohm(15) based on the idea of a background existing he called, "Implicate Order" but gives no details of its structure. Survival Physics comes closer to this than all the other interpretations.
The reader can compare all these interpretations with that arising from Survival Physics.
Pearson, Ronald D.: Alternative to Relativity including Quantum Gravitation: Second International Conference on Problems in Space and Time: St. Petersburg, Petrovskaja Academy of Sciences & Arts [Sept.1991]: pp 278-292 Chairman Local Organising Committee: Dr. Michael Varin: Pulkovskoye Road 65-9-1 St. Petersburg 196140, Russia. FAX: (7) (812) 291-81-35 Phone:Alexandre Alekseev: office:(7) (812) 291-36-73, Home:(7) (812) 173-55-69 E-Mail: consymATsaman.spb.su
Pearson, Ronald D.: Quantum Gravitation and the Structured Ether Sir Isaac Newton Conference. St. Petersburg [March 1993] pp 39-55 (Address as Ref.1)
Pearson, Ronald D.: (also see ref. 13)
"Consciousness as a Sub-quantum Phenomenon" - Ronald Pearson's paper
Published in the journal Frontier Perspectives, Temple University, Philadelphia, USA. Volume 6. No. 2, Spring/Summer 1997 (pp70-78). ISSN: 1062-4767
Guth, Alan & Steinhardt, Paul: The Inflationary Universe The New Physics, Ed. Paul Davies: Cambridge University Press 1989 pp34-69
Greene, Brian: The Elegant Universe: Superstrings, Hidden dimensions and the quest for the Ultimate Theory: Jonathan Cape, London 1999
Schwarzchild, B.: Very distant Supernova Suggest that the Cosmic Expansion is Speeding Up: Physics Today, Vol.51(6) pp.17-19
Anastasovski, Peter et al: A new approach to the cosmic red-shift and to the cosmic Microwave sources: Journal of New Energy, Vol.1 No.2 Summer 1996 pp79-87
Keen, Montague: Ellison, Arthur: Fontana, David (of the Society for Psychical Research UK): The Scole Report: (gives recent valuable evidence) Proc. Soc. of Psychical Research Vol.58, Part 220 (1999)
Jeff Rense Radio Show: www.rense.com (Date 3 Nov. 2001 in USA) (Note: these audio archives are currently offline))
Pearson, Ronald D.: Intelligence Behind the Universe!: [Dec.1990] 370 pages (520 grams) A popularisation plus Technical Appendix
Publications by Ron Pearson
Pearson, Ronald D.: Origin of Mind [Dec.1992]: A popularisation plus Technical Appendix (Maths of Opposed Energy Dynamics) 72 pages
Publications by Ron Pearson
The Scientific Proof of Life After Death - Pamphlet by Michael Roll
Jones, Tom M.: www.survivalafterdeath.org
Deutsch, David: The Fabric of Reality: Penguin Books 1997
Bohm, David: Wholeness and the Implicate Order: Routledge & Kegan Paul 1980